Fast-growing tree in the Legume family, growing 30-90’ tall with a trunk 2-4’ in diameter. Forms multiple-stemmed clones and is slow to grow leaves in the spring. Seedlings and small branches have paired thorns. Bark is smooth and green on saplings, but dark with deep furrows on mature trees.
- Invades forests, upland prairies and savannas, pastures, old fields, and roadsides.
- Its vigorous vegetative reproduction forms extensive, dense groves of clones that exclude native vegetation.
- Damage to roots or stems (such as from fire, wind, cutting, or disease) stimulates vigorous sprouting, root suckering, and lateral spread.
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